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List Of Fundamental Rights

List Of Fundamental Rights, Right To Equality, How Many Fundamental Rights

List Of Fundamental Rights: Fundamental rights are a group of rights that have been recognised with a high degree of protection from encroachment. And these rights are specifically identified in a constitution or have been found under due process of law. Articles 12-35 of the Indian Constitution deal with Fundamental Rights. These human rights are conferred upon the citizens of India for the Constitution tells that these rights are inviolable. Right to Life, Right to Dignity, Right to Education etc. all come under one of the six central fundamental rights.

In Hindi:

मौलिक अधिकारों की सूची: मौलिक अधिकार अधिकारों का एक समूह है जिन्हें अतिक्रमण से उच्च स्तर की सुरक्षा के साथ मान्यता दी गई है। और इन अधिकारों को विशेष रूप से एक संविधान में पहचाना गया है या कानून की उचित प्रक्रिया के तहत पाया गया है। भारतीय संविधान के अनुच्छेद 12-35 मौलिक अधिकारों से संबंधित हैं। ये मानवाधिकार भारत के नागरिकों को प्रदान किए जाते हैं क्योंकि संविधान बताता है कि ये अधिकार अहिंसक हैं। जीवन का अधिकार, सम्मान का अधिकार, शिक्षा का अधिकार आदि सभी छह केंद्रीय मौलिक अधिकारों में से एक के अंतर्गत आते हैं।

List Of 6 Main Fundamental Rights

  • Right to Equality (Article 14-18)
  • Right to Freedom (Article 19-22)
  • And Right against Exploitation (Article 23-24)
  • Right to Freedom of Religion (Article 25-28)
  • Cultural and Educational Rights (Article 29-30)
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies (Article 32)

Description of Fundamental Rights

Fundamental rights are the basic human rights enshrined in the Constitution of India which are guaranteed to all citizens. So they are applied without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender, etc. Significantly, fundamental rights are enforceable by the courts, subject to certain conditions.

These rights are called fundamental rights because of two reasons:

  • They are enshrined in the Constitution which guarantees them
  • They are justiciable (enforceable by courts). In case of a violation, a person can approach a court of law.

Introduction Of All The Fundamental Rights

Right To Equality

Right to equality guarantees equal rights for everyone, irrespective of religion, gender, caste, race or place of birth. This ensures equal employment opportunities in the government and insures against discrimination by the State in matters of employment on the basis of caste, religion, etc. This right also includes the abolition of titles as well as untouchability.

Right To Freedom

Freedom is one of the most important ideals cherished by any democratic society. The Indian Constitution guarantees freedom to citizens. The freedom right includes many rights such as:

  • Freedom of speech
  • Freedom of expression
  • And Freedom of assembly without arms
  • Freedom of association
  • And Freedom to practise any profession
  • Freedom to reside in any part of the country

Some of these rights are subject to certain conditions of state security, public morality and decency and friendly relations with foreign countries. This means that the State has the right to impose reasonable restrictions on them.

List Of Fundamental Rights
List Of Fundamental Rights
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Right Against Exploitation

This right implies the prohibition of traffic in human beings, begar, and other forms of forced labour. It also implies the prohibition of children in factories, etc. The Constitution prohibits the employment of children under 14 years in hazardous conditions.

Right To Freedom Of Religion

This indicates the secular nature of Indian polity. There is equal respect given to all religions. There is freedom of conscience, profession, practice and propagation of religion. So the State has no official religion. Hence every person has the right to practice his or her faith freely, and establish and maintain religious and charitable institutions.

Cultural And Educational Rights

These rights protect the rights of religious, cultural and linguistic minorities, by facilitating them to preserve their heritage and culture. Educational rights are for ensuring education for everyone without any discrimination.

Right To Constitutional Remedies

Though the Constitution guarantees remedies if citizens’ fundamental rights are violated. The government cannot infringe upon or curb anyone’s rights. When these rights are violated, the aggrieved party can approach the courts. Citizens can even go directly to the Supreme Court which can issue writs for enforcing fundamental rights.

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Features of Fundamental Rights

  • All the fundamental rights are different from ordinary legal rights in the manner in which they are enforced. And if a legal right is violated, the aggrieved person cannot directly approach the SC bypassing the lower courts. Therefore he or she should first approach the lower courts.
  • And some of the fundamental rights are available to all citizens while the rest are for all persons (citizens and foreigners).
  • The fundamental rights are not absolute rights. Though they have reasonable restrictions, which means they are subject to the conditions of state security, public morality and decency and friendly relations with foreign countries.
  • And they are justiciable, implying they are enforceable by courts. So people can approach the SC directly in case of violation of fundamental rights.
  • The fundamental rights can be amended by the Parliament by a constitutional amendment but only if the amendment does not alter the basic structure of the Constitution.
  • The fundamental rights can be suspended during a national emergency. And, the rights guaranteed under Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended.
  • So the application of fundamental rights can be restricted in an area that has been placed under martial law or military rule.
List Of Fundamental Rights
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Fundamental Rights Available Only to Citizens

The following is the list of fundamental rights that are available only to citizens (and not to foreigners):

  • Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of race, religion, caste, gender or place of birth (Article 15).
  • Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment (Article 16).
  • Protection of freedom of (Article 19)
  • Speech and expression
  • Association
  • Assembly
  • Movement
  • Residence
  • Profession
  • Protection of the culture, language and script of minorities (Article 29).
  • Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions (Article 30).

Importance of Fundamental Rights

Fundamental rights are fundamental because they are like the backbone of the country. They are essential for safeguarding the people’s interests.

Therefore according to Article 13, all violative laws of fundamental rights shall be void. So, there is an express provision for judicial review. The SC and the High Courts can declare any law unconstitutional on the grounds that it is violative of the fundamental rights. Article 13 talks about not just laws, but also ordinances, orders, regulations, notifications, etc.

Origins

The first demand for fundamental rights came in the form of the “Constitution of India Bill, in 1895. Also popularly known as the Swaraj Bill 1895, it was written during the emergence of Indian nationalism and increasingly vocal demands by Indians for self-government. Therefore it talked about freedom of speech, right to privacy, right to franchise, etc.

The development of such constitutionally guaranteed fundamental human rights in India was inspired by historical examples such as the England Bill of Rights (1689), the United States Bill of Rights (approved on 17 September 1787, final ratification on 15 December 1791) and France’s Declaration of the Rights of Man (created during the revolution of 1789, and ratified on 26 August 1789).

List Of Fundamental Rights
List Of Fundamental Rights

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Briefly

In 1928, the Nehru Commission composed of representatives of Indian political parties proposed constitutional reforms for India that apart from calling for dominion status for India and elections under universal suffrage, would guarantee rights deemed fundamental, representation for religious and ethnic minorities, and limit the powers of the government. In 1931, the Indian National Congress (the largest Indian political party of the time) adopted resolutions committing itself to the defence of fundamental civil rights, as well as socio-economic rights such as the minimum wage and the abolition of untouchability and serfdom. Committing themselves to socialism in 1936, the Congress leaders took examples from the Constitution of the Soviet Union, which inspired the fundamental duties of citizens as a means of collective patriotic responsibility for national interests and challenges.

In Hindi:

1928 में, भारतीय राजनीतिक दलों के प्रतिनिधियों से बना नेहरू आयोग ने भारत के लिए संवैधानिक सुधारों का प्रस्ताव रखा, जो भारत के लिए प्रभुत्व की स्थिति और सार्वभौमिक मताधिकार के तहत चुनावों के अलावा, मौलिक समझे जाने वाले अधिकारों, धार्मिक और जातीय अल्पसंख्यकों के लिए प्रतिनिधित्व की गारंटी देगा, और शक्तियों को सीमित करेगा। सरकार के। 1931 में, भारतीय राष्ट्रीय कांग्रेस (उस समय की सबसे बड़ी भारतीय राजनीतिक पार्टी) ने मौलिक नागरिक अधिकारों की रक्षा के साथ-साथ न्यूनतम मजदूरी और अस्पृश्यता और दासता के उन्मूलन जैसे सामाजिक-आर्थिक अधिकारों की रक्षा के लिए संकल्पों को अपनाया। 1936 में खुद को समाजवाद के लिए प्रतिबद्ध करते हुए, कांग्रेस नेताओं ने सोवियत संघ के संविधान से उदाहरण लिया, जिसने राष्ट्रीय हितों और चुनौतियों के लिए सामूहिक देशभक्ति जिम्मेदारी के साधन के रूप में नागरिकों के मौलिक कर्तव्यों को प्रेरित किया।

Undertaken By the Constituent Assembly Of India

The task of developing a constitution for the nation was undertaken by the Constituent Assembly of India, composed of non-elected representatives. The Constituent Assembly first met on 9 December 1946 under the temporary presidency of Sachchidananda Sinha. Later, Dr Rajendra Prasad was made its president. While members of Congress constituted a large majority of the assembly, Congress leaders appointed persons from diverse political backgrounds to positions of responsibility for developing the constitution and national laws. Notably, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar became the chairperson of the Drafting Committee, while Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel became chairpersons of committees and sub-committees responsible for different subjects.

List Of Fundamental Rights

In Hindi:

राष्ट्र के लिए एक संविधान विकसित करने का कार्य भारत की संविधान सभा द्वारा किया गया था, जो गैर-निर्वाचित प्रतिनिधियों से बना था। संविधान सभा की पहली बैठक 9 दिसंबर 1946 को सच्चिदानंद सिन्हा की अस्थायी अध्यक्षता में हुई थी। बाद में डॉ राजेंद्र प्रसाद को इसका अध्यक्ष बनाया गया। जबकि कांग्रेस के सदस्यों ने विधानसभा के एक बड़े बहुमत का गठन किया, कांग्रेस नेताओं ने विभिन्न राजनीतिक पृष्ठभूमि के व्यक्तियों को संविधान और राष्ट्रीय कानूनों के विकास के लिए जिम्मेदारी के पदों पर नियुक्त किया। विशेष रूप से, भीमराव रामजी अम्बेडकर मसौदा समिति के अध्यक्ष बने, जबकि जवाहरलाल नेहरू और सरदार वल्लभभाई पटेल विभिन्न विषयों के लिए जिम्मेदार समितियों और उप-समितियों के अध्यक्ष बने।

उस अवधि के दौरान भारतीय संविधान पर महत्वपूर्ण प्रभाव डालने वाला एक उल्लेखनीय विकास 10 दिसंबर 1948 को हुआ जब संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभा ने मानवाधिकारों की सार्वभौमिक घोषणा को अपनाया और सभी सदस्य राज्यों को अपने-अपने संविधान में इन अधिकारों को अपनाने का आह्वान किया। मसौदा समिति द्वारा तैयार किए गए पहले मसौदा संविधान (फरवरी 1948), दूसरे मसौदा संविधान (17 अक्टूबर 1948) और अंतिम तीसरे मसौदा संविधान (26 नवंबर 1949) में मौलिक अधिकारों को शामिल किया गया था।

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